3.10 IT Systems in Organizations

Source: http://www.tamingdata.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/tree-swing-project-management-large.png
Source: http://www.tamingdata.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/tree-swing-project-management-large.png

Topics:
Introduction
This topic builds on the concepts introduced in “Introduction to project management” and provides students with a more in-depth understanding of the development of IT systems. Most organizations, at some stage in their development, require the introduction of a new IT system as well as the maintenance and eventual retirement of their current systems. The ability of the organization to manage this change can determine the future viability of the organization.

Students should consider the interrelationship between stakeholders, IT systems, data, processes and policies, which provides the framework for the different project management approaches needed in order to accomplish the specified task. For example, students should research real examples of the role of IT professionals who maintain legacy or develop new IT systems, to reinforce the theoretical concepts addressed in this topic.

Possible scenarios:
Students may take the development of their internal assessment as a starting point for the application of the theoretical and practical aspects of this topic. This may take the form of producing a Gantt chart to indicate the stages in the development of the solution, on the agreed date, or how differing methodologies may lead to variations in the completion of tasks.

Other scenarios may include a city government that wishes to introduce an improved IT system to provide a more secure and effective method of record keeping in its public libraries. This would include the replacement of the storage area network (SAN) to accommodate the increased amount of data requiring archiving, along with the need to provide a disaster recovery system.

IT concepts to address in this topic:
Information systems, people and teams
• The role and need for IT in organizations
• Organizational IT policies
• IT personnel and organizational structure: for example, information system (IS) managers, support staff, network manager, database administrator
• Development personnel: for example, manager, programmer, analyst, project manager

The system development life cycle (SDLC)
• Analysis of current situation
• Organizational requirements
• Methods of data collection: questionnaires, interviews, observation, literature searches
• Feasibility study
• Identification of possible IT solutions
• Requirements specification
• Justification of preferred IT solution
• Project plan (who, why, what, when and how part of the project)
• Project goals, scope and constraints, such as financial, time, technical, human-resource-related, risks, communication, procurement, quality
• Project initiation document
• Design considerations
• Inputs, data structure, processes, outputs, user interface
• Prototyping
• Development of the IT solution
• Initial testing, alpha testing
• Quality assurance and quality control
• Implementation
• Training and support of staff, documentation to support the new IT system
• Changeover methods: direct, phased and parallel running
• Beta testing
• Maintenance
• Phase out

Project management issues:

• Need for project management
• Development methodologies: agile development and waterfall development
• Project management methodologies: for example, PRINCE2 (projects in controlled environments 2), SSADM (structured systems analysis and design method), PMBoK (project management body of knowledge), CMMI (capability maturity model integration)
• Iteration
• Time constraints, tasks, resources and milestones; Gantt and Pert charts
• Modelling systems: for example, entities, entity relationship diagrams (ERD), data flow diagrams
• Maintenance of legacy systems
• System support: for example, internal support, maintenance contract
• Incident management and escalation

Source: Information technology in a global society guide. 2012 onward.

external image good_code.png
Image result for systems development life cycle phases
Image result for systems development life cycle phases

Source:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systems_development_life_cycle

Learning Goals
EXPLAIN the challenges associated with IT project development. (E)
EXPLAIN the steps of the System Development Life Cycle (SDLC). (D)
EXPLAIN the methods used to manage IT projects. (D)
CONSTRUCT PERT and Gantt charts to model a project's schedule. (B)
CONSTRUCT ERD and DFD diagrams to model an IT system. (A)
DISCUSS appropriate project management techniques and decisions. (E)

Learning Resources
ITGS Key Terms
ITGSopedia IT Systems in Organizations
ITGS Textbook Chapter 15 IT Systems in Organisations

Useful Tools

Lucid Chart Chrome Plugin
https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/lucidchart-diagrams-onlin/apboafhkiegglekeafbckfjldecefkhn?hl=en

Fluid UI Software
https://www.fluidui.com/

Gant Project Software
http://www.ganttproject.biz/

Relevant Articles and Videos














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Required Reading
Information Technology in a Global Society, Stuart Gray. 1st Edition. © 2012 Stuart Gray. ISBN 9781468023619. Pages 309-330.This textbook has been developed independently of the International Baccalaureate ® This book was written specifically for the ITGS course, covering technical systems, social impacts and ethical issues, and each area of application.

Learning Activities

3.10A
Study the learning resources presented on topic 3.10 via ITGSopedia and throughout ITGS Chapter 15. Review page 315.

PERT stands for Program Evaluation and Review Technique. A PERT chart represents all of the tasks necessary to a project's completion, and the order in which they must be completed along with the corresponding time requirements. Certain tasks are dependent on serial tasks, which must be completed in a certain sequence.

Research PERT charts then create a PERT Chart with a Critical Path for the following Chicken and Pasta Recipe. Save as Your Last Name 3.10A. Submit via Edmodo [10 marks].

PERT Chart Revision Task – Chicken and Pasta Recipe
Task
Description
Duration (mins)
Predecessor (Dependency)

1
Defrost chicken
20
None
2
Chop chicken
7
1
3
Measure out pasta
1
None
4
Chop vegetables
10
None
5
Cook chicken
25
2
6
Cook pasta
15
3
7
Cook sauce
8
4
8
Mix chicken, pasta, sauce
2
5, 6, 7
9
Milestone (Serve)

8
Lucid Chart Chrome Plugin:
https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/lucidchart-diagrams-onlin/apboafhkiegglekeafbckfjldecefkhn?hl=en
Additional PERT Resources:
http://searchsoftwarequality.techtarget.com/definition/PERT-chart
http://smartlifeblog.com/pert-chart-tools/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Program_evaluation_and_review_technique
http://www.netmba.com/operations/project/pert/

Homework Learning Activities:
1-Finish and submit 3.10A.
2-Tag TWO recent news articles related to IT Systems in Organisations to the HHS ITGS Diigo Group [8 marks] . Use the 3.10_IT_sys_organizations tag. Prepared to present and DISCUSS the articles you tagged during class tomorrow.

Example of Gantt Chart for Planning a ConcertSource: http://teamgantt.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Gantt-Chart-Example-1024x536.png
Example of Gantt Chart for Planning a ConcertSource: http://teamgantt.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Gantt-Chart-Example-1024x536.png


3.10B
A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart, developed by Henry Gantt in the 1910s, that illustrates a project schedule. Gantt charts provide a high level overview of a project schedule, including each individual task, the people responsible for overseeing them, and task starting and finishing times. They also give a clear view of the progress which should have been made at any given time. Gantt charts are often created with project management software, plugins, or with spreadsheet applications such as Google Sheets, Numbers, or Microsoft Excel.

CONSTRUCT a Gantt chart and the project schedule data in the table below:
Stage
Start Date
End Date
Responsible
Analysis
1 Sept 2011
14 Nov 2011
Jane Pear
Design
15 Nov 2011
16 Feb 2012
Lucy Riess
Development
22 Nov 2011
25 Mar 2012
Sam Tallen
Testing
5 Jan 2012
25 Apr 2012
Jack Patiol
Acceptance
1 May 2012
14 May 2012
Clarence West
Marking Scheme [20 marks]:
Each task should be shown, correctly positioned, and correctly labeled [5 marks]
The scale should be correct and the dates clear [10 marks]
The name of the individual responsible should be indicated in or near each task [5 marks]

Save as Your Last Name 3.10B. Change the sharing settings to "anyone with the link can edit". Submit the link to your shared document via Edmodo.

Useful Resources for creating Gantt charts:
About SmartSheet:

Free SmartSheet Software: http://goo.gl/3LHYR2
Tutorial for using SmartSheet to develop a Gantt Chart:

Gantt tool for Google Sheets: http://goo.gl/00bKJb
Gantt Project (download required): http://www.ganttproject.biz/

Homework:
Study the 3.10 IT System in Organsation ITGS Key Terms. Test Thursday.

3.10C Key Terms Test

ITGS Key Terms


3.10 D
Complete the 3.10D Open Resource Paper 1 Style Assessment on the template provided. Make a copy of the template. Rename the copy 3.10D Your Last Name. Change sharing settings to "anyone with the link can edit" and submit the link to the shared document via Edmodo.

3.10E Group Presentation
There are many recent examples of failed IT projects. We will now examine some examples of failed IT projects to help us understand the importance of utilizing a correct development approach In small teams.

FBI VCF Project (Nick, Grace, Nitish)
NHS Programme for IT (Swati, Dakota, Likitha)
Air Force Expeditionary Combat Support System (Jacob, Nyla, Veronica)
Canadian Ministry of Children and Family Development (Firas, Declan, Hala)
FBI Sentinel Project (Nuha, Alex, Irshad)
BBC Digital Media Initiative Project (Nicole, Rishi, Kashaf)

Research the case you have been assigned with your team and investigate what happened, what went wrong, and what mistakes could be avoided next time. Apply what you have learned throughout your studies of IT Systems in Organizations and clearly identify the mistakes that were made. Design and develop an original Google Presentation that includes all of the following:

STATE the name of the failed project and the names of the members of your group. [3 Marks]
DESCRIBE the original purpose and goals of the project you researched. [4 Marks]
EXPLAIN what went wrong. [6 Marks]
IDENTIFY the mistakes that were made. [3 Marks]
DISCUSS how the utilization of a correct development approach may have prevented the failure from happening. [8 Marks]
JUSTIFY why the development approach you selected was the best development approach for the project you researched [8 Marks].
IDENTIFY addition resources including 3 tagged articles and 3 links to video news clips. [6 Marks]
CITE all sources with Easybib.
Change sharing settings to "Anyone with the link can EDIT" and submit shared link to your Presentation via Edmodo.
There are a plethora of good resources for each topic on the ITGS textbook 3.10 webpage.
Presentations will begin during class Wednesday.

3.10 Games to Play








Instructions for Jeopardy game.
1) Download the game onto your computer and open up in PowerPoint.
2) Then press play slide show and click on any number under a category you want.
3) To get the answer to the question click the question box.
4) Lastly to go back to the main screen click the back arrows. The question you pick will then disappear.


TED Ed Lessons (click on image to get to the lesson):

Firas:
Source: "PRINCE2 Made Simple." YouTube. YouTube, 08 Feb. 2009. Web. 17 Mar. 2017.
Source: "PRINCE2 Made Simple." YouTube. YouTube, 08 Feb. 2009. Web. 17 Mar. 2017.


Rishi:
Source: "What Is ERP? (Enterprise Resource Planning)." YouTube. YouTube, 25 Aug. 2011. Web. 17 Mar. 2017.Source: "Information Technology in a Global Society (ITGS) Textbook." ITGS Textbook. ITGS, 8 Feb. 2017. Web. 19 Mar. 2017.
Source: "What Is ERP? (Enterprise Resource Planning)." YouTube. YouTube, 25 Aug. 2011. Web. 17 Mar. 2017.Source: "Information Technology in a Global Society (ITGS) Textbook." ITGS Textbook. ITGS, 8 Feb. 2017. Web. 19 Mar. 2017.


Kashaf:
Source: "What Is Systems Development Life Cycle?" YouTube. YouTube, 17 Dec. 2013. Web. 17 Mar. 2017.
Source: "What Is Systems Development Life Cycle?" YouTube. YouTube, 17 Dec. 2013. Web. 17 Mar. 2017.


Swati:
Source: "Storage Area Network (SAN) Storage Explained in 60 Seconds." YouTube. YouTube, 12 Mar. 2014. Web. 17 Mar. 2017.
Source: "Storage Area Network (SAN) Storage Explained in 60 Seconds." YouTube. YouTube, 12 Mar. 2014. Web. 17 Mar. 2017.



Alex:
Source: "Agile vs Waterfall: Waterfall Wins!" YouTube. YouTube, 14 June 2016. Web. 17 Mar. 2017.
Source: "Agile vs Waterfall: Waterfall Wins!" YouTube. YouTube, 14 June 2016. Web. 17 Mar. 2017.


Nick:
Source: "Project Management." YouTube. YouTube, 30 Nov. 2014. Web. 17 Mar. 2017.
Source: "Project Management." YouTube. YouTube, 30 Nov. 2014. Web. 17 Mar. 2017.


Nuha:
Source: "What Is the Waterfall Methodology?" YouTube. YouTube, 11 Dec. 2015. Web. 17 Mar. 2017.
Source: "What Is the Waterfall Methodology?" YouTube. YouTube, 11 Dec. 2015. Web. 17 Mar. 2017.


Grace:
Source: "Cloud Computing Explained." YouTube. YouTube, 29 Sept. 2008. Web. 17 Mar. 2017.
Source: "Cloud Computing Explained." YouTube. YouTube, 29 Sept. 2008. Web. 17 Mar. 2017.


Nicole:
Source: "MGM 4197 MIS Assignment." YouTube. YouTube, 21 Apr. 2014. Web. 17 Mar. 2017.
Source: "MGM 4197 MIS Assignment." YouTube. YouTube, 21 Apr. 2014. Web. 17 Mar. 2017.


Veronica
Source: "How to Use Gantt Charts for Project Management." YouTube. YouTube, 20 July 2015. Web. 17 Mar. 2017.
Source: "How to Use Gantt Charts for Project Management." YouTube. YouTube, 20 July 2015. Web. 17 Mar. 2017.


Likitha:
Source: "Waterfall v S Agile Which One Will Work Best For Your Project." YouTube. YouTube, 17 Jan. 2016. Web. 17 Mar. 2017.
Source: "Waterfall v S Agile Which One Will Work Best For Your Project." YouTube. YouTube, 17 Jan. 2016. Web. 17 Mar. 2017.


Hala:
Source: "Project Management: Implementation Methods." YouTube. YouTube, 01 Aug. 2016. Web. 19 Mar. 2017.
Source: "Project Management: Implementation Methods." YouTube. YouTube, 01 Aug. 2016. Web. 19 Mar. 2017.


Nitish:
Source: "Virtualization As Fast As Possible." YouTube. YouTube, 06 Nov. 2015. Web. 19 Mar. 2017.
Source: "Virtualization As Fast As Possible." YouTube. YouTube, 06 Nov. 2015. Web. 19 Mar. 2017.


Nyla:
Source: "Structured Analysis SSADM." YouTube. YouTube, 28 Sept. 2015. Web. 19 Mar. 2017.
Source: "Structured Analysis SSADM." YouTube. YouTube, 28 Sept. 2015. Web. 19 Mar. 2017.


Jacob:
Source: "Introduction to IDEs." YouTube. YouTube, 05 Jan. 2013. Web. 19 Mar. 2017.Source: Wingware. "Wing Python IDE." Wingware. Wingware, c1999-2017. Web. 19 Mar. 2017.
Source: "Introduction to IDEs." YouTube. YouTube, 05 Jan. 2013. Web. 19 Mar. 2017.Source: Wingware. "Wing Python IDE." Wingware. Wingware, c1999-2017. Web. 19 Mar. 2017.




Additional Resources:
http://www.nagpurtoday.in/maha-metros-project-management-goes-hi-tech/03141456
http://customer-relationship-management.cioreview.com/cioviewpoint/managing-information-technologya-race-to-the-finish-nid-23966-cid-108.html
https://www.centercode.com/blog/2011/01/alpha-vs-beta-testing/

Sources:
"Maha Metro's Project Management Goes Hi Tech." Nagpur Today. Nagpur Today, 14 Mar. 2017. Web. 19 Mar. 2017.
Freiler, Luke. "Alpha vs. Beta Testing." Centercode. Centercode, 17 Jan. 2011. Web. 19 Mar. 2017.
Iannello, Joe. "Managing Information Technology-A Race to the Finish." CIOReview. CIOReview, c2017. Web. 19 Mar. 2017.

Quizlet:

https://quizlet.com/83376818/itgs-it-systems-in-organizations-flash-cards/

Source:
Pippin, Donald. "ITGS- IT Systems in Organizations." Quizlet. Quizlet, c2017. Web. 19 Mar. 2017.