3.11 Robotics, Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c5/Shadow_Hand_Bulb_large.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c5/Shadow_Hand_Bulb_large.jpg

The increasing capability of IT systems has allowed developers to implement systems that attempt to understand and imitate human behaviour. These systems have already had profound effects on society, although their effectiveness is largely determined by the accuracy of the algorithms that underpin them.

The increasing use of robotics, artificial intelligence (AI) and expert systems raises a range of ethical issues. For example, at which point should humans hand over key decision-making to a computer? Should robots have the same rights as humans? What social impacts might arise with the replacement of human workers or the creation of smart weapons?

Possible scenario:
A hospital administrator is considering using a computer-controlled robotic device to assist with knee surgery. The robotic system models the patient’s knee area prior to surgery. During the procedure the robot is controlled by the surgeon using a joystick. The system eliminates the effects of tremors in the surgeon’s hands and limits the range of movement of the cutter to areas of the knee that have been predetermined by the model. Although there are claims that the surgery is less invasive and patients have a shorter recovery time, questions may be raised about the reliability and the cost of the system.

IT concepts to address in this topic:

Robotics:
• Input devices: for example, camera, sensors, microphones
• Output devices: for example, claws, wheels, motors, relays, speakers
• Robot, android, cyborg
• Sensors: for example, heat, proximity, magnetism, light, humidity, pH

Artificial intelligence:
• Artificial intelligence versus computational intelligence
• Man or machine: Turing test, CAPTCHA (completely automated public Turing test to tell computers and humans apart)
• Capabilities and limitations: for example, learning to identify human emotions, evaluation of living things and machines (intuition, prior knowledge, judgment)
• AI techniques: searching, pattern recognition, heuristics, machine learning
• Fuzzy logic, set theory
• Machine learning: can machines become independent?
• Natural language communication and translators
• Neural networks: similarity to biological systems
• Pattern recognition: OCR (optical character recognition), image analysis, speech recognition, speech synthesizers
• Processing and storage requirements

Expert systems:
• Collection, creation and maintenance of knowledge base
• Creation of inference engine, inference rule (“if–then” rules), chaining, suitable domains for expert systems
• Expert systems, knowledge base, knowledge engineer, expert system shells, inference engine,domain, common-sense knowledge
• Purpose of an algorithm within expert systems: for example, fault finding, product development

Applications of robotics, artificial intelligence and expert systems:
• Embedded systems: for example, cell/mobile phones, GPS, washing machines
• Internet search engines
• Smart systems: for example, used at home or in warfare, medicine, cars
• Use of artificial intelligence (AI): for example, language translation, chess, voice recognition, modelling, games, predictive text, business intelligence systems
• Use of expert systems: for example, medical diagnosis, fault diagnosis, flight simulators, fraud detection
• Use of robots: for example, in industry, health, warfare, airlines, space, underwater exploration

Source: Information technology in a global society subject guide (2012).

Learning Goals
  • DESCRIBE the applications of intelligent computer systems (Irshad and Nicole).
  • EXPLAIN how "intelligent" behavior is created (Grace and Nitish)
  • DISTINGUISH Artificial Intelligence and Computational Intelligence (Firas and Nyla).
  • DESCRIBE common applications of robots (Kashaf and Nick).
  • DESCRIBE the input and output devices used by robots (Jacob, Rishi).
  • EXPLAIN the challenges faced by the designers of robots (Alex, Veronica).
  • DISCUSS the social impacts of intelligent robotic systems (Hala, Dakota).
  • EVALUATE the ethical implications of developing intelligent systems (Nuha, Likitha, and Swati).

Learning Resources
ITGS 3.11 Key Terms
ITGSopedia 3.11
ITGS Textbook 3.11
PBS Nova Robotics

Ted Ed Lessons for 3.11


Machine Learning:

MachineLearningTedEd.png

IBM Watson and How It Works:

IBMWatson.png

Expert Systems:


ExpertSystems.png


Industrial Robots and How They Work:

IndustrialRobots.png


Fuzzy Logic:

FuzzyLogic.png


Augmented Reality and What It Is:

AugmentedReality.png


The Complications of Artificial Intelligence:
complicationsofAI.png

Inference Engines:
InferenceEngines.png

More Interesting Ted-Ed Lessons:

Types of Sensors
Drone Safety - the What's and Why's
Artificial Intelligence
Pattern Recognition OCR
Androids and Humanoids
Ethical Implications of Robots
Sources: www.youtube.com


Recent Articles


Additional Articles:
Required Reading
Information Technology in a Global Society, Stuart Gray. 1st Edition. © 2012 Stuart Gray. ISBN 9781468023619. Pages 332-349.
Gift of Fire, Sara Baase. 4th Edition. (C) 2013 Pearson Education. ISBN 978013249267-6. Pages 347-350.

Learning Activities
3.11A
Review the DARPA Grand Challenge Case Study Summary on ITGS page 347 and complete 3.11A as directed on the template.Remane the template Your Last Name 3.11A.



3.11B HW Questions.

3.11C Laws of Robotics
Source: https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/2a/56/6e/2a566ee9fe4105245546ba7089c8465a.jpg
Source: https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/2a/56/6e/2a566ee9fe4105245546ba7089c8465a.jpg

Read Assimov's Robot Laws (above). Watch iRobot Film. During the film, sketch out notes to help you in preparation to DISCUSS how the "LAW OF ROBOTICS" (see law assignment below) malfunctioned in the film. [12 Marks].

Law 1: Grace, Kashaf, Firas, Nitish, Alex, Swati
Law 2: Likitha, Nick, Irshad, Veronica, Rishi, Nuha
Law 3: Nyla, Hala, Dakota, Jacob, Nicole

HOMEWORK
Upon completion of the film compose a final copy that addresses the prompt above (DISCUSS how the Law of Robotics you were assigned to analyze "malfunctioned' in the film. Focus on the impacts the technology had on relevant stakeholders. Be prepared to DISCUSS your analysis / response with the class.

3.11D
"Expert Group" Lesson. Research your learning goal and prepare a 10-15 minute mini lesson using Blendspace to teach to the class. Utilize video, recent articles and research, and any other valuable learning resources. Cite all sources appropriately. Your goal is to get each class member to green or blue for your respective learning goal.

Blendspace allows you to design web based lessons with multimedia content.

Check out the Photosynthesis Blendspace example and also click on the more lessons link at the bottom for additional examples of Blendspaces.
https://www.blendspace.com/lessons

Blendspace Overview (30 second video)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aQ_Mg3lSoew

3.11 D Marking Scheme
Insert Your Full Names Here
Insert Your 3.11 LEARNING GOAL HERE

Content [4 marks]
An adequate amount of tiles are included containing relevant resources and correct information related to the learning goal. Topics are presented clearly in an organized manner.
4
3
2
1
0
Comments
Pre/Post Assessments [4 marks]
Pre and Post Assessments were utilized and were adequate measures to assess learning.
4
3
2
1
0
Comments
ITGS Terminology [4 marks]
Appropriate ITGS Key Terms used throughout lesson.
4
3
2
1
0
Comments
Presentation / Graphics [4 marks]
Tiles are attractive. Text is easy to read. Graphics and effects are used throughout to enhance the presentation.
4
3
2
1
0
Comments
Sources [4 marks]
ALL Sources cited appropriately throughout.
4
3
2
1
0
Comments
Use of Class Time [4 marks]
Used time well during each class period. Focus placed on getting Blendspace done.
4
3
2
1
0
Comments
[ _ TOTAL MARKS EARNED / 24 Total Marks Possible]
_ FPS Letter Grade

3.11E
Paper 1 Style Assessment
Study all content we covered for topic 3.11. Review learning goals, Blendspaces, key terms, learning resources, and everything presented within the required reading.

Prepare to DESCRIBE and EVALUATE robotic input and output devices, sensors, telepresence robots, wi-fi networks, fixed video systems (Skype), expert systems, robotic arms, machine learning, knowledge bases, inference engines, fuzzy logic, binary logic, decision trees, GPS, autonomous machines, and robots.

3.11F Key Terms Quiz
3.11F Key Terms Quizlet Study Set


j3.png

j2.png