3.2 Software

The software topic deals with the software associated with a typical computer system. ITGS students are required to understand the meaning of the terms and concepts listed here and, where appropriate, briefly describe how they work or their relevance to the user. The development of software can have social impacts such as increased access for disabled people, and ethical issues, for example, only producing packages in a limited number of languages, effectively making English the global language. Students are expected to examine the effects of these developments on stakeholders.

Possible scenarios to address:
A computer user is planning to update the software on their current computer system to the most recent versions and must use their knowledge to:
• select a suitable operating system based on information such as price and ease of installation
• select suitable software for the computer and decide which source to obtain the software from
• ensure that the software is installed legally, is registered and that user support is available
• select the appropriate software to prevent viruses or malicious software from damaging the contents of the home computer.

Software Fundamentals key terms:
• Applications: word processing, desktop publishing, presentations, photo and video editing, music and
sound development, website development
• System software: operating systems and utilities
• Interfaces: graphical user interface (GUI), command line interface (CLI), menu-driven interface (MDI), voice
• Licensing: shareware, public domain, freeware, proprietary and open source software
• Licensing authorities: Business Software Alliance (BSA)
• Commercial and custom-built (bespoke) software
• Registration, serial number, warranty, copyright agreement
• Web-based software
• User support: manuals, assistants, tutorials, help systems, “Read Me” files
• Macros, templates, wizards
• File formats, for example, RTF (rich text format), TXT (text), PDF (portable document format), XLS (Excel spreadsheet), SWF (small web format), ZIP (zipped file), JPG/JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts
Group bitmap), PNG (portable network graphics bitmap), CSV (comma-separated values), HTM/HTML (hypertext markup language)
• Data transfer: ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange), tab-delimited text file, zipped file

System Utilities key terms:
• Defragmentation/optimization and disk utility software
• Backup, file management, account and accessibility management
• Monitor and keyboard settings, for example, international settings, disability settings
• Virus scan, malware detectors and removers
• Compression/decompression (lossless, lossy)
• Colour synchronization

Learning Goals
DISTINGUISH operating system software and application software.
JUSTIFY the choice of a suitable operating system.
DESCRIBE the categories of application software.
DESCRIBE the types of user interface.
DESCRIBE the types of software interface.
EXPLAIN how software features can help disabled users.
EXPLAIN the possible impacts of software failure.

Learning Resources
ITGS 3.2 Key Terms

Common Craft Software In Plain English

Information Technology in a Global Society, Stuart Gray. 1st Edition. © 2012 Stuart Gray. ISBN 9781468023619. Pages 43-63.
This textbook has been developed independently of the International Baccalaureate ® This book was written specifically for the ITGS course, covering technical systems, social impacts and ethical issues, and each area of application.

Digital Planet: Tomorrow’s Technology And You, George and Ben Beekman. 10th Edition. © 2012 Pearson Education. ISBN 9780132091251. Pages 104-138.
This book explains how various technologies work, how they are used to solve problems and extend human capabilities, and how our ever-growing network of digital devices affect our lives, our world, and our future.

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The story of Normal Feller.


Learning Activities
3.2A. Read pages 43-63 (ITGS). On a piece of notebook paper DEFINE the key terms on page 64 and Complete Exercise 3-3 from page 65. Due before class TUESDAY. [20 marks]

3.2B. Study the learning resources provided for Strand 3.2-Software (ITGSopedia Wiki). On a piece of notebook paper complete Exercises 3-5, and 3-6 from page 65 (ITGS). Label the paper 3.2B. Due before class WEDNESDAY.

3.2C. Read pages 104-138 (Digital Planet). As a class: create a Google Doc called DP Software. Change sharing settings to "anyone with the link can edit". Design and develop questions for a Kahoot based on all of the Key Terms from Digital Planet Chapter 4 and ITGS Chapter 3. Cite sources. The Key Terms are IDENTIFIED on page 139 (Digital Planet). Design and devlelop a Kahoot! game based on your questions to be played during class. Each question should have a related picture or graphic.

3.2D. Open the 3.2D Google Doc Template. Resave as 3.2D Your last name. Use the template to complete 3.2D as directed. STATE three famous software related computer failures (not including Therac-25). IDENTIFY a link to an article that summarizes each respective failure and tag it to the HHs ITGS Diigo groups using the 3.2_software tag. DESCRIBE the events, including the cost (in money or materials) of the failure.Bold key terms .IDENTIFY whether the failures were caused by errors with hardware, software, people, or data. (5 marks each) Submit via Edmodo (3.2D).

3.2E. Sign in to Google Drive. Open the 3.2E Template. Save as 3.2E your last name. Complete as directed. Cite all sources appropriately. Submit via Edmodo (3.2E). [46 marks possible].

3.2F. Read the Therac-25 Case Study and Complete the 3.2 F Therac-25 Analysis on the provided template. Bold key terms. Submit via Edmodo. (3.2F Therac25)

Thearc-25 Case Study Resources
external image therac_facility.jpg

3.2G. Roleplay. Conduct additional research on the Therac-25 case. Be prepared to DISCUSS the case from the perspective of each of the major stakeholders (Hospital, FDA, Operators, and AECL). Be prepared to JUSTIFY whether the responsibility is the same for each respective accident.

Therac 25 Role Play
>>>Review the summary of stakeholders for your respective group:
  • Hospital (Kristen, Morgan, Yousuf)
  • FDA (Elliot, Kyle, Wameed)
  • Operators (Ayzad, Sydney, Katrina)
  • AECL (Desi, Liz, Tyler, Jalen)
>>>Review the Computerized Radiation Therapy report by Troy Gallagher.
>>>Review the Therac-25 Tyler, TX Timeline:
March 21, 1986
East Texas Cancer Center, Tyler Texas. Voyne Ray Cox is overdosed during treatment on his back. Fritz Hager notifies AECL. Company suggests some tests and suggests hospital might have an electrical problem. AECL claims again that overdoes is impossible and that no other accidents have occurred previously.
March 22, 1986
Ray Cox checks into an emergency room with severe radiation sickness. Fritz Hager calls AECL again and arranges for Randy Rhodes and Dave Nott to test Therac. They travel to Texas and test Therac but find nothing wrong.
April 7, 1986
ETCC has investigated electrical problem possibility, finding none, put Therac-25 back in service.
April 11, 1986
East Texas Cancer Center. Another Verdon Kidd is overdosed during treatments to his face. Operator is able to explain how Malfuction 54 was achieved. Fritz Hager tests computer’s readout of no dose, and discovers the extent of the overdoses. Hager spends weekend on phone with AECL explaining findings.
April 14, 1986
AECL files report with FDA. AECL sends letter to Therac-25 users with suggestions for avoiding future accidents, including the removal of the up-arrow editing key and the covering of the contact with electrical tape.
>>>Review the explanation of the Tyler, TX Software problem and why it produced Malfunction 54.
This is what each stakeholder knew shortly after the Tyler accidents.

In March of 1986, AECL was notified that the Therac-25 unit in Tyler, Texas had overdosed a patient. They sent both a local Texas engineer and an engineer from their Canada home office to investigate the incident the day after it occurred. They spent a day running tests on the machine but could not reproduce the specific error. The AECL engineer suggested that perhaps an electrical problem had caused the accident. He also said that AECL knew of no accidents involving radiation overexposure with the Therac-25. An independent engineering firm checked out the electric shock theory and found that the machine did not seem capable of delivering an electric shock to a patient.

On April 11th of 1986, AECL was alerted to another overdose that had occurred in Tyler. After communication with the medical physicist at Tyler, AECL engineers were able to reproduce the overdose and the sequences leading up to it.

>>>CONSTRUCT a 3 minute proposal regarding what should be done to remedy the malfunciton with your respective group.
>>>Each group will PRESENT their proposals (3 minutes) followed by 3 minutes of rebuttals from the other groups.
>>>DISCUSS which proposals are better.
>>>Review the Therac-25 Yakima Software Problem.
>>>DISCUSS which of the aforementioned proposals would have helped prevent the Yakima cases.

3.2H. Quizlet Key Terms test. Use the Quizlet widget below to study the Key Terms for strand 3.2. Take the Quizlet test with 66 available terms. When you are satisfied with your score save a .pdf of your screen documenting your results. (File>Print>PDF>Save) Save .pdf as Your Last Name 3_2KT.pdf Submit via Edmodo (3.2KT)

Software Key Terms Quizlet Study Set

Software Keyterms Study Stack

In this interactive website, you can play 10s of games to help learn more about the software keyterms that should be used throughout your responses on the external assessments in order to score within the highest bands. (Firas K.)

Here is the link in order to play all of the other games available through study stack: