3.7 Databases


Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3b/Database_models.jpg
Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3b/Database_models.jpg

Databases lie at the heart of most IT systems whether in businesses, organizations or other institutions. Databases enable organizations to maintain accurate and comprehensive records. In order to appreciate the role that databases play, the ITGS student must have an understanding of how they work, which can only be gained from the design and creation of basic relational databases as well as by examining how databases are used in specified scenarios (for instance, schools, retail stores, online shopping, online reservations).

The increasing use of databases raises a range of social impacts and ethical issues such as the rights of individuals with respect to the storage and potential sale of their personal data or the ease of data mining and data matching. Students are expected to discuss these issues and, where appropriate, evaluate possible solutions.

Possible scenario:
A vet requires information about pet owners and their pets. The ITGS student must be able to develop an original IT solution to meet the vet’s needs. This knowledge should be acquired through a practical activity where the student creates a (minimum) three-table relational database (first normal form only) that use queries to interrogate the data, forms to enable the easy input and viewing of data, and reports to provide printed information as required.

IT concepts to address in this topic:
Database organization
• Table
• Field, data types, key field/primary key, secondary key
• Record
• Flat-file database, relational database, normalization
• Database management system
• Specialized databases: for example, web databases, online encyclopedias

Functions
• Data validation: data types, range check, check digit, field size, input mask, drop-down list
• Queries: for example, searching, sorting, filtering, use of Boolean operators (AND, NOT, OR)
• Data entry form
• Report generation
• Macros
• Transfer of data between databases and other applications

Data storage and access
• Data integrity, reliability, redundancy
• Data matching, data mining
• Database security

Practical database techniques
• Table
• Field, data types, key field/primary key, secondary key
• Record
• Linking tables to create a relational database
• Data maintenance: changing, editing, deleting records
• Queries: for example, searching, sorting, filtering, use of Boolean operators (AND, NOT, OR)
• Data entry form
• Report generation
• Creating and editing simple macros
• Mail merge

LEARNING GOALS

Concepts
  • DISTINGUISH flat file and relational databases.
  • DESCRIBE the applications of databases.
  • EXPLAIN the importance of data normalisation.
  • EXPLAIN rules governing data use.
  • EVALUATE privacy and integrity concerns related to database use.
Practical Skills
  • Create a relational database.
  • Add, edit, and delete records.
  • Create queries using Boolean operators.
  • Use forms and reports effectively.
  • Apply verification and validation techniques.

Source: http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3560/3332644561_c9d5041d02.jpg
Source: http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3560/3332644561_c9d5041d02.jpg


REQUIRED READING

http://itgsopedia.wikispaces.com/3.7+Databases
Digital Planet Chapter 7 Database Applications and Privacy Implications. Pages 234-264.
ITGS Chapter 7: Databases. Pages 144-161.
IBM presents Relational Databases

LEARNING RESOURCES

Access 2013 Introduction to Databases | GCF Learnfree.org
Access 2013 videos and tutorials | Microsoft

Introduction to Databases | GCFLearnFree.org

Access: Introduction to Objects | GCFLearnFree.org

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

GUIDED LEARNING ACTIVITIES:

1.3A Privacy Issues Intro Activity
  • DISCUSS what is meant by privacy in the context of ITGS.
  • DISCUSS what is meant by anonymity in the the context of ITGS.
  • On the sticky note provided, IDENTIFY three things about yourself-two that are true and one that is false. Write the items in any order but do NOT write your name on the page or share what you wrote with others.
  • READ A Face Is Exposed for AOL Searcher No. 4417749 | New York Times

HOMEWORK:
  • Complete Exercises 9-14 and 9-15 on page 214 (ITGS) handwritten on a piece of notebook paper. [8 marks]. Due prior to class Tuesday. Late day passes will not be accepted for this assignment.

3.7A Detroit Favs Database.

A new social media company (Detroit Favs) located in metro Detroit requires a new database that can be used to help catalog their target audience's favorite restaurants located in and around Metro Detroit. Detroit Favs would like their target audience to be able to search their database, add their respective favorite restaurants to the database, and to Email/Text recommendations based on user reviews to new subscribers.
DESIGN, DEVELOP, and CONSTRUCT a new database that fulfills the aforementioned needs. Name the database DetroitFavs.accdb. Save the database in your FPS H:drive.
CONSTRUCT a table.

Determine what appropriate fields will be and design measures to maintain data integrity and to eliminate redundancy across all fields. When you are finished designing and developing the table, add 25 unique records to the table.
CONSTRUCT a form.

Use the form wizard to design and develop a simple form that can be used to add additional records into the Restaurants table. When you are finished designing and developing the form, add 5 additional records to the table.

Submit the DetroitFavs.accdb file via Edmodo (3.7A) [44 marks possible].

3.7A Marking Scheme
CONSTRUCT database: 6/6
CONSTRUCT table named Restaurants: 6/6
CONSTRUCT form named Restaurants: 6/6
Add 30 Records to Restaurant Table (initial 25 + 5 from Form): 30/30
Total Marks POSSIBLE: 48/48


3.7B
STUDY Digital Planet pages 234-264. Complete the True or False on page 265 and the Multiple Choice on pages 265-266 on the scantron provided during class. Label the scantron with your name and hour and identify 3.7B as the subject. Due FRIDAY BEFORE class. [25 marks possible].

3.7C Database Short Story
Database Short Story Submit via Edmodo (3.7C). [25 marks possible].
Homework: Study for the 3.7 Key Terms Test

3.7D Database Queries
Complete 3.7D as directed. [20 marks possible].

3.7E Group Database Project [30 marks possible].
>>>Combine your Access restaurant tables into a single new Access database. Name the new Access database ITGS Favs.
>>>Design and develop an additional table in the ITGS Favs database that will harvest data regarding an additional category (Favorite Movies, Favorite Books, >>>Favorite Music, etc.) Name the table accordingly. Enter 30 records into the new table.
>>>Design and develop ONLINE forms that can be posted to Edmodo that harvest appropriate data into each of the two tables in the ITGS Favs database.
>>>Nitish is the project manager for this activity. Submit database via Edmodo (3.7E). Post each respective form to the HHS IB Student Group. Due at the end of class.

3.7F Key Terms Test [62 marks possible].


3.7G Paper 1 Style Assessment
In class Practice Paper 1 Style Assessment. [100 marks possible]
STUDY all posted resources and beyond to prepare to get to Green or Blue for the following:
Concepts
  • DISTINGUISH flat file and relational databases.
  • DESCRIBE the applications of databases.
  • EXPLAIN the importance of data normalisation.
  • EXPLAIN rules governing data use.
  • EVALUATE privacy and integrity concerns related to database use.
Practical Skills
  • Create a relational database.
  • Add, edit, and delete records.
  • Create queries using Boolean operators.
  • Use forms and reports effectively.
  • Apply verification and validation techniques.