3.8 Spreadsheets, Modeling, and Simulations

external image Spreadsheet_animation.gif

Introduction:
The increasing capabilities of computers have allowed individuals and organizations to develop software that can be used to test “what-if” scenarios and create simulations and models of real-world events.

Spreadsheets, through the use of worksheets and graphs, can be used to manage, predict using a series of “what-if” scenarios, and display financial details of businesses.

Modeling and simulations can be used to recreate or predict the conditions that may result from an event, for example, the areas that will be affected by coastal flooding as a result of different levels of global warming.

It is important that the ITGS student is aware of the benefits of creating accurate spreadsheets, models and simulations as well as the social impacts that could result from simulations being unable to replicate the real world, and the ethical issues that may arise during the development of the model.

Possible scenarios:
Students are expected to carry out practical activities using spreadsheets, for example, the development of a spreadsheet that allows a teacher to add marks from a class test so as to generate information such as the grade for the test.

Students are expected to use modeling and simulations to reinforce their theoretical knowledge, and to apply the ITGS triangle to a range of real-life scenarios.

IT concepts to address in this topic:
Theoretical and practical concepts for spreadsheets
• Cell types: for example, text, number, date, currency, hyperlinks
• Formulas: relative and absolute cell references
• Sorting, filtering and replicating data
• Types of charts
• Formatting and presentation: for example, text (fonts), background, paragraphs, pagesSyllabus content
• Data validation, verification and testing
• Functions: maths, text, logic, date
• Protection for sheets and workbooks, cell locking
• Advanced functions: for example, lookup, pivot tables, macros
• Worksheet modeling: “what-if” analysis (scenarios, goal seek tool)

Modelling and simulation technologies and considerations
• Model
• Simulation
• Types of simulations and models
• Virtual reality, augmented reality, gaming: for example, MMORPG (massively multiplayer online roleplaying game)
• Graphics and animations (2D, 3D)
• Visualization of data
• Feedback loop

Developing and using models and simulations
• The validity of the model and verification of the results of a simulation, reproducibility of results
• Relationship of model to reality
• Relationship between a model and a simulation

Source: Information technology in a global society guide. 2012 onward.

LEARNING GOALS
DISTINGUISH computer models and computer simulations (A)
DESCRIBE the applications of models and simulations (A)
EXPLAIN high performance computing techniques
EXPLAIN how a computer model is created (A)
FORMULATE a spreadsheet to create a simple computer model (B)
EVALUATE issues related to the accuracy and reliability of models (F)

LEARNING RESOURCES
ITGS Key Terms
ITGSopdedia Spreadsheets, Models & Simulations
ITGS Textbook Chapter 8: Computer Models & Simulations
Google Sheets Basics

RELEVANT ARTICLES AND VIDEOS
The ITGS Diigo Global Tagging System tags for 3.8 are
3.8_spreadsheets
3.8_modelling_simulations





REQUIRED READING
Information Technology in a Global Society, Stuart Gray. 1st Edition. © 2012 Stuart Gray. ISBN 9781468023619. Chapter 8: Models & Simulations. Pages 166-185. This textbook has been developed independently of the International Baccalaureate ® This book was written specifically for the ITGS course, covering technical systems, social impacts and ethical issues, and each area of application.

Digital Planet: Tomorrow’s Technology And You, George and Ben Beekman. 10th Edition. © 2012 Pearson Education. ISBN 9780132091251.
Pages 162-177, 200.This book explains how various technologies work, how they are used to solve problems and extend human capabilities, and how our ever-growing network of digital devices affect our lives, our world, and our future.

Gift of Fire, Sara Baase. 4th Edition. (C) 2013 Pearson Education. ISBN 978013249267-6.
Pages Pages 321-329. This book examines the Social, Legal, and Ethical issues related to Computing Technologies.

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

3.8A Models & Simulations
computer model.png
Read ITGS Pages 166-175, Models & Simulations then thoroughly complete Exercises 8-1 and 8-2 on page 169 and Exercise 8-3 on page 173 on a piece of notebook paper. Please write legibly. [32 marks possible]

3.8B Spreadsheet Review
Spreadsheet Review-Grade Calculator. CONSTRUCT a new spreadsheet as directed on pages 182-183 (ITGS) with Google Sheets. Save as Your Last Name 3.8B. Change sharing settings to "anyone with the link can EDIT" and submit via Edmodo (3.8B). [84 marks possible]

3.8C College Expenses Spreadsheet
Read Digital Planet. Pages 162-177, 200. Study the resources for this topic via the HHS ITGS Wiki and ITGSopedia.

Sign into https://drive.google.com. Open the 3.8C Template. Click File>Make a Copy. Rename document Your Last Name 3.8C. Complete all tasks as directed. When you are finished change sharing settings to "anyone with the link can EDIT" and submit the link to your work via Edmodo (3.8C).


3.8D Climate Change Model
WATCH

CONSTRUCT a climate model using Google Sheets as directed on pages 170 and 171 (ITGS). Save as Your Last Name 3.8D. Change sharing settings to "anyone with the link can EDIT" and submit via Edmodo (3.8D). [20 marks possible]. After you finish the Climate Change Model Read ITGS pages 172-177.

3.8D Extra Credit:
CONSTRUCT a Missile Trajectory Model using Google Sheets as directed on pages 178 and 179 (ITGS). Save as Your Last Name 3.8D EC. Change sharing settings to "anyone with the link can EDIT" and submit via Edmodo (3.8DEC). [10 extra credit marks possible].

3.8E Key Terms Test

[31 marks possible]
ITGS Key Terms

3.8F
Read Gift of Fire pages 321-329 and complete the 3.8F. Sign into https://drive.google.com then Open the 3.8F template.. Click File>Make a copy. Rename as Your Last Name 3.8F.
1
IDENTIFY 4 questions that are used to evaluate computer models? [4 marks]
2
ANALYZE an example of a mistaken prediction made about computers. [8 marks]
3
STATE three questions whose answers you would need for a life cycle analysis model comparing the environmental impact of juice boxes with the environmental impact of juice in bottles. (Use the questions for diapers in Figure 7.2 as a guide.) Consider manufacture, transportation, use, and disposal. [3 marks}
4
Suppose a computer program uses the following data to determine in how many years an important natural resource (say, copper) will run out.
  • The number of tons in the known reserves of the resource.
  • The average amount of the resource used per person (worldwide) per year.
  • The total population of the world.
  • An estimate of the rate of population increase for the next few decades.
IDENTIFY all the reasons you can think of why this program is not a good predictor of when we will run out of the resource. [4 marks]
5
In 1972, a group called the Club of Rome published a study using computer models that implied that the world would run out of several important natural resources in the 1980s. Today, even with the enormously increased demand from China and other developing countries, we have not run out. EXPLAIN why you think many people accepted the predictions in the study? [6 marks]
6
Recent predictions for population growth in the 21st century have changed quite a bit from predictions made a few decades ago. Find reports of older population models (say, from the 1960s, 1970s, or 1980s), and find reports of recent population models. CONTRAST how they differ? DESCRIBE how multiple assumptions in the models have changed? [8 marks]
7
Three-dimensional printers create 3-D structures, layer by layer, using glues and resins, under direction of software. Research what people and businesses are now using 3-D printed materials for. Suppose someone described these devices 10 years ago as a potential invention and asked: Will they fill any real needs? EXPLAIN how you think most people would have answered? EXPLAIN what their answer would be now? [8 marks]

Change sharing settings to "anyone with the link can EDIT" and submit link via Edmodo (3.8F). [41 marks possible]

3.8G Diigo Tagged Articles
Tag 3 recent articles to the HHS ITGS Diigo Group that EVALUATE issues related to the accuracy and reliability of models using the
3.8_modelling_simulations tag. Be prepared to give a 90 second summary of the article during class. [12 marks possible]

3.8H Article Analysis
Open the ITGS Triangle Article Analysis Template. Click File>Make a Copy. Rename Your Last Name 3.8H. Complete an analysis on ONE of the articles that were tagged 3.8_spreadsheets OR 3.8_modelling_simulations during activity 3.8G. Ensure that you have used and bolded ITGS key terms throughout your responses and that all sources have been cited appropriately. Change the sharing settings to "anyone with the link can EDIT" and submit via Edmodo (3.8H) when you have finished. [33 marks possible]

3.8I Paper 1 Style Assessment [100 marks possilbe]



Link to play other games linked with the key terms: